The Essentials Of Today’s PCB Fabrication Process

PCB fabrication today requires more advanced skills and knowledge to be able to provide people top quality products in the tech industry. In fact, keeping up with the current market needs is a crucial effort nowadays because consumers demand for better products and services in order to make their lifestyle easier and more comfortable. Hence, it’s important to understand how the process works so you can help your project become more precise and functional. You can get helpful tips and insights to support your PCB fabrication goals in a more efficient manner.

PCB Assembly

The fabrication process of PCBs is actually essential to businesses involved within the electronics industry today. Hence, these boards are widely used in electronic circuit bases to ensure electrical and mechanical functions. These are also applicable in providing mechanical base for the structure of circuits needed to create a device. Virtually, all circuits are using PCBs which are specifically designed and applied in massive quantities. However, these boards create the foundation of virtually every electronic circuit available in the market today.

Methods Involved in the Manufacturing Process of PCBs

Technology in the global industry in fact moves forward. The track sizes decrease but the number of layers within the PCBs increases in order to conveniently house the bigger connectivity needed. On the other hand, the design systems are being enhanced to make sure that smaller SMTs and other related devices will be carefully handled. In addition, the soldering methods used in the fabrication are also being accommodated to produce quality outputs on a timely fashion.

Hence, the following will provide you with more detailed information about the essentials of today’s PCB fabrication process:

1. Printed circuit board constituents

Printed circuit boardsPCBs can be fabricated with the help of various substances. But the most frequently used material is the FR4 composed of glass fiber board. It provides better stability even under temperature variations while it doesn’t breakdown badly. This is also a cheaper option if you are looking for something that can fit your current budget. To achieve high-performance radio frequency design, you can integrate constant dielectric substrate with lower level of loss needed. Also, the PTFE-based PCBs may be used but take note that they are tougher to apply.

2. Basic printed circuit board fabrication process

With the help of bare PCBs available and chosen, the next stage is the creation of needed tracks while removing unwanted copper. Manufacturing these boards is typically achieved through chemical etching using ferric chloride. In gaining the perfect tracking patterns, photographic method is used. Generally, the copper placed on the PCB is covered using photo-resist and is put out in the open through photo-mask or photographic film with detailed tracks needed in the process. Next step is the etching process done by placing the PCB in the ferric chloride solution where you no longer need to apply copper or tracks. However, it’s important to take note that if the PCBs are etched for a longer period, the definition will be lost because ferric chloride may undercut the photo resist.

3. Multi-layered PCBs

With the increasing of intricacies among electrical circuits today, it’s not always achievable to give all the required connectivity by only using the 2 sides of PCBs. This happens pretty normally once the microprocessor is dense and the similar PCBs are being calculated. In this case, multi-layered boards are needed. The fabrication of multi-layered boards uses similar processes like those in the single-layer PCBs. However, it needed greater precision in order to achieve ultimate fabrication process control.

4. Printed circuit board holes or vias

Holes found in PCBs are often referred to as the vias or via holes. They are used to link various layers together using various points. These holes can also be helpful in enabling component leads to be attached on the board. Normally, the inner surface of the vias contains copper layers to electrically link them to the circuits.

Pcb fabrication

These are only some of the methods included in the PCB fabrication process. In order to know other important things about printed circuit board manufacturing, you can check out this website to learn more. Remember, people’s needs continue to increase and you need to keep up with these demands.

Author Bio:
Top notch Pcb creation , Printed circuit board and get together. We dispatch PCB Prototypes the Same Day! From model to creation of single, twofold, and multilayer PC Sheets. Visit here to get more detail information.

Using ID Lanyards To Mark Your Brand

Ever wonder why ID lanyards are a must for every company, no matter how big or small? Well, it is simply because the theory behind using such a simple object lies in the psychology of branding your organization. Employees wearing ID lanyards of the same design signify their pride and loyalty for the company. When these people step outside the office or are seen within the vicinity of a company-sponsored event, others will know right away the name of the organization to which they are affiliated. It is all about marking your brand and showcasing it to the rest of the world.

Dye sub lanyardsApart from marking your brand using ID lanyards, they can also have other uses such as hold other ID cards, membership cards, and even small items such as keys and pens. After all, it’s not just all about keeping the company logo alive in everyone’s minds, but also in the functionality of the object being used to mark your brand. It would be a delight for employees to wear the lanyards around their necks and at the same time allow them to carry with them other valuable items other than their company IDs.

Some Most Common Uses Of ID Lanyards Are :

The use of ID lanyards is ideal in any company or organization as it makes screening people’s entry into the premises quickly and efficiently. And, unlike clips that create creases on clothes and can be detached easily, lanyards can be safely and comfortable worn around the neck without the danger of them being misplaced. Plus, it feels great to see our employees wearing our brand around their necks with such elegance and dignity.

LanyardsOur company knows the great value of marking your brand and showcasing it to the rest of the world. That is why we provide wholesale ID lanyards that come in different materials such as polyester, tubular, woven, nylon, and dye sub. It all depends on whether the company’s taste rests on the traditional or the contemporary, or whether its inclination is more on form over functionality or vice versa. The material does the trick apart from the design itself.

Polyester lanyards are the most popular as they provide an equal balance between functionality and price. Tubular lanyards are also economical yet professional-looking, not to mention quite durable because of the way the material is sewn together. Woven lanyards are quite elegant, and you can ask your company name to be woven into the fabric itself. Nylon lanyards are of premium quality because the logo and name of the company is readily visible even from afar.

ID LanyardsDye sub lanyards create a more rugged feel and one of the most durable because the material won’t fade or tear quickly. Lastly, cord lanyards are called text-only lanyards because of the thin cord, which provides the best level of comfort for the wearer. All these lanyard styles provide the same function of marking your company brand, but it is in choosing the design where it gives you freedom to think about what you prioritize the most. Whether it’s form or functionality, we are here to help you in choosing the best lanyard style for your company.

Don’t miss this opportunity to mark your brand and make your company known to the rest of the world. We offer various designs and colors to choose from and we can even help you design your own lanyard to help you realize you branding goals and objectives. We also have a collection of various attachments for ID lanyards to choose from, which will give you the freedom to decide how you want your company lanyard to work for you and your employees.

You can choose from thumb triggers, bulldog clips, key rings, and oval hooks, just to name a few. That’s branding and functionality rolled into one. If your company or organization does not have a lanyard yet, it might be best to start investing in one. After all, a lanyard does not just give you an effective means of identifying your employees, but also allows you to showcase you company brand to the rest of the world as well.

Lanyards are well-known for being able to secure different kinds of things, ranging from cards and keys to phones and wallets.Click this website for more details about lanyards.

Custom Coins and Choices

Challenge coins have been used in the military since the Roman Empire. These were given out to soldiers as part of their pay to recognize their service to the legion. History says that these coins were of such beauty that the legionnaires decided to keep them instead of spending them for supplies.

History also tells of other stories when these coins were used. In one popular story, an airman, along with the rest of the soldiers in their squadron, was given a challenge coin by his wealthy commanding officer. They all kept these in pouches worn around their neck. When the airman was shot down behind enemy lines, all his belongings were taken except for the challenge coin.

custom coins

When he escaped and made his way to France, the French suspected him to be a spy and were ready to execute him by firing squad. Fortunately, his challenge coin had his squadron’s insignia and he was saved. So, he received a bottle of wine rather than a barrage of bullets.

In all the stories that involve challenge coins, one thing is common these were used to prove one’s membership in a select group.

Although the use of these coins is still mainly a military tradition, it has slowly found its way to civilian use.

Nowadays, companies and organizations use these to recognize performance or as tokens of gratitude. Whatever purpose you may need it for, there are a lot of options available when creating your very own elegant custom coins.

challenge coins


You can choose to put your company logo on the coin and combine it with your tagline or perhaps choose to put in the award that it will be used for. Whatever you decide on, you will have complete control of what the coin will look like. All you need to do is send in the design that you want in the manner that you are comfortable in. Your sketch or description will be used to create your custom coins.


The most popular and common shape of challenge coins are of course circular. However, with today’s technology your custom coin can be created in the shape that you prefer. All shapes will have a 2 inch diameter so there will still be enough space for your design. Some of the options available include basic polygons and even more complex outlines to fit your insignia.

Metal Types

Although the coins may look similar, there are various metal types to choose from. Coins are generally made of gold, silver, brass, bronze or nickel. You can pick one that has a shade that will work well with your design. The coin’s finish can either be polished or antique.

Special Add- ons

Traditionally, custom coins are displayed on stand or boxes. However, if you wish a more practical and informal challenge coin, you can choose to have them made into key chains or bottle opener. These would be perfect as holiday giveaways for employees and members.Another special add-on that you can choose to add to your custom coins would be sequential numbering. These would be on the façade of the coin to make it visible. This will definitely create the feeling of exclusivity as it reinforces that the coins are only for the selected few.

You can also opt for diamond cut edges to make a more traditional and elegant challenge coin for your company or organization. There are a few options available such as oblique and rope cut designs. These additional features create an interesting texture to the edge of your coins.


The coins are generally packaged and shipped individually in clear pace pouches. However, you can choose from other packaging options that are available. You can opt for the traditional velvet pouch to give the coin that vintage and military feel.

You can also choose velvet boxes or stands so your members and employees can display these coins at their offices or homes.

Challenge coins are a great way to show your appreciation and you would definitely want yours to be professionally made.  Visit to see more information and to get a free quote.

The Chemistry of Golf Balls

Small, dimpled, white: this is the image painted in one’s mind when a golf ball is mentioned. But it does not stop there. This small object is quite amusing as a product of chemistry. This scientific aspect has helped golf ball engineers and scientists to improve its structure to meet the needs and preferences of golf players.

Golf’s ancestral home is Scotland, where the first ball used is called “feathery” which was made of feathers stuffed inside a ball of leather. From then on, it became popular as a sport and many versions and enhancements of it were made. Studies and discoveries in physics and chemistry have helped it improve up until now, where the modern golf ball can be easily recognized.

Golf balls, when observed through outward appearances, look like they are made of mere plastic. But, a secret lies within. For two-piece balls which are the ones commonly used by leisure golf players, its core is made up of rubber that is mixed with other chemicals and molded into a round shape. For three-piece balls, which are used by professional golfers, their core is filled with gel. Other cores are also made up of a material called polybutadiene formed through the process of compression molding. Multi-layered balls on the other hand has a core which is rigid and can easily maintain form after the force is applied.


Polymer is the material commonly used to create the outer covering. For those unfamiliar with the term, a polymer can either be a natural or synthetic compound made up of a long chain of small similar molecules. Common products of this compoundare plastic products and some cookwares and hairdressing products. Golf engineers have chosen to create the covering of modern golf balls with this material because its molecules can be easily altered and can be modified to improve durability and can have various effects as desired by players.

With such outer covering, these balls should withstand an amount of force without breaking or having great deformation when hit with the clubhead. Some of these polymers include resin from a native tree of South America called balata, and two synthetic resins called surlyn, and urethane. Balata golf balls were once popular due to its great spin rates and control, but was replaced by the synthetic polymers due to its low durability.

The most popular innovation of golf balls today are probably the multi-layered ones. These balls comprise of four layers: a core, two middle layers, and the cover. The middle layers are made of a material with high elasticity and constriction, which gives a reduction on the spin, thus precision in the distance and the direction of the ball. Another special material for this is its covering.It can be made up of elements such as titanium to have an accurate energy transfer from the club to the ball. Also, the most popular material used today is the polyurethane which provides greater control and softer feel. It is also used to protect the markings or logos in the ball. These types of balls are slightly more expensive than two-piece or three-piece balls.

Engineers and scientists still dig into the mysteries to improve the quality of golf balls. Today, recent studies are focused on the effect the water adsorption of the balls and finding solutions for it.

What is golf without its ball? This is the reason why the chemistry behind it must be known and respected. Without the people behind the success of golf ball innovations, it will just only be a fragment of sports history. Without the chemistry, there will be no golf.

Rubber Bracelets – Everything You Need in Once Place

When people think of wristbands, the first thing that probably comes to mind is a plain, solid colored rubber bracelet with a word or two in it. A standard, basic rubber bracelet, likely with a good cause. After all, awareness wristbands were the kinds of rubber bracelets that first got a lot of people’s attentions and donations over 10 years ago. Since then, wristbands have expanded, figuratively and literally. They’ve gotten thinner, thicker, more colorful, more decorated and more functional.

Here at The Wristband Factory, we offer creative ways for you to share your cause, advertise your organization, express yourself, celebrate an event or remember a place or person. We know wristbands and we know what you need in a wristband. You want it to look good, have a good quality and be durable and made from 100% medical grade Silicone, and we’re bringing that to you.

Rubber Bracelets

At The Wristband Factory, you have the freedom to customize your own wristbands. We have a wide variety of options for sizes, colors, and other customizable options. We offer wristbands, finger bands, micro wristbands and keychain wristbands depending on your needs and tastes.

Our wristbands can have one, two, three or more solid colors, and we also do swirled wristbands. You have the option of engraving or printing on your text or clipart onto your customizable rubber bracelets and finger bands. If you can imagine it and so long as it fits the rubber bracelets, it can be done.

Your wristbands represent you and whatever it is you are marketing, and we want to help you achieve that. In addition to a wide array of designing options for our valued customers, we promise high quality products. If you need a wristband for a concert, a sporting event, a party, you can be sure that The Wristband Factory’s rubber bracelets are durable, washable and will be enjoyed by your event goers. Your design and durability requirements will be met by cutting edge machinery.

In addition to our quality guarantee, and expansive customization options, you may also get a free quotation and art proof for your designs. You can build and order online – it’s that convenient. We have made our website accessible and easy on the eyes to help you create the wristband you need. We ensured secure ordering if you have concerns about online safety. After all, if we fail on that front, surely we won’t be among the most trusted wristband manufacturers online and throughout the world.

Are you in a rush? Even if you are, there’s absolutely no need to worry. After all, we have a 24 Hour Rush Wristband option to help you with urgent wristband needs. Need a bit of inspiration on what your wristband could look like? Check out our Sample Gallery for design ideas. With that and our new Wristband Builder version 2.0, you are well on your way to creating the perfect wristband for your needs. Furthermore, to help your building process, we have free Pantone Color Match.

Once you are done with your design, you can order from the website as well. We offer Free FedEx Air Shipping. You are guaranteed savings with the prices we offer for a wide range of wristband types together with the free FedEx Air Shipping. If you’d like to avail of other shipping options though, you’ll be glad to know that we’re more than eager to hear out your request. Just give us a call or send us an email regarding your preferred means of delivery.

Rubber BraceletPlease feel free to read through our Client Testimonials. We have a huge clientele, ranging from individuals who want a few pieces to businesses that require thousands of wristbands. Surely, our clients are not reluctant to share their positive experiences and satisfaction with The Wristband Factory. We’ve also worked with charities and fundraising organizations to individual clients who needed wristbands for a local project or event – proof that our rates are truly within the means of those looking for the most affordable offerings.

We encourage you to design and order your custom wristbands with us here at The Wristband Factory. If you don’t have a design yet, we are more than willing to help you out – our in-house artists will surely be able to come up with a good design for you.

 We have a wide variety of options for sizes, colors, and other customizable options. We offer wristbands, finger bands, micro wristbands and keychain wristbands depending on your needs and tastes.

Tips On How To Get The Best Iron On Patches

Lots of groups nowadays use patches for their movements, events, companies and organizations. Since there is a wide range of designs you can apply on them, iron on patches are one of the best items you could use to represent your group. You can put any message or image you are planning to display on them. It is possible to apply any shape, size or design you want.


Since they are displayed on the noticeable parts of garments like caps, uniforms, handkerchiefs, bags, shirts and pants, you can expect them to help you with promotion or branding. They can also be perfect for school organizations, computer game teams, scouts and athletic teams. Let us tell you this – if you are looking to get the best custom patches for your team or any kind of group, you should be glad to know that it is not hard to do so even on the comfort of your house.

Since the internet has become a wide and efficient platform for promoting and marketing all kinds of products, countless business people have now created online shops. You will no longer need to go around your area just to search for a store that can create custom patches for you. However, this is where your first concern begins.

Following Are Some Tips On How To Get The Best Iron On Patches Are:

You will need to find an online store that is reputable. In doing this, you need to remember that the ones that the search engines display first are not automatically the best choice for you. It would be better to search for any customer feedback or review about the store you are planning to purchase from before placing your orders. This is to give you an idea of what you can expect from that certain store based on the experiences of their previous clients. You can already base your choice on this.

Among the things you should look for when reading those feedback and reviews are the issues of product quality and shipping. You need durable iron on patches which is why you must avoid those online stores which complains regarding this.

In addition, most people who purchase custom patches actually need them for a specific event which is why they have a deadline or target with regards to when they should have their orders. If you are looking to receive your patches on a specific date, it is best to make sure that the store you are purchasing from will be able to send your orders without delay. The best thing you can do is to avoid or minimize requests for design revisions and to choose the online store which has the closest establishment from where you are situated.

After doing the first check, the next crucial thing you need to be certain of is the ability of the manufacturer to meet your demands. There are various kinds of patches including their backings. Before placing your orders, you need to decide what kind of backing, border, and type of patch you need including the thread types and colors. Not all stores can provide you the specifics you are looking for.

Despite the limitations of most companies, there are still manufacturers that are able to create any custom patch you want including the add-on you might be looking for. This is a good reason to start deciding how you want your patches to look like whether you want woven ones, puffed embroidery, merrow borders or iron on patches.

We know that no one wants to receive orders with the wrong details or specifics. This is the reason why you must be certain about everything before placing your orders. Putting these things into consideration will help you save precious time and money and they are highly important especially if you are placing bulk orders.

People who purchase in bulk usually ask for references so they’ll hear for themselves what the previous clients of certain companies have experienced from them. If you are planning to do the same to be sure that your iron on patches will look just the way you want them to, you should not be ashamed of asking for references.

How Keynote Speakers Must Write Their Speech

Delivering a keynote speech is really fun and perhaps the best part is that most keynote speakers earn more money. But most of the time, people interchange the terms “keynote,” “speech,” “seminar,” and “workshop.” By clearly defining the needs of your client, you will be able to determine if what they really want is a keynote speech.

Now, if you are given the task to deliver a keynote address, you must plan what your message will be. You must first meet with the organizer and host to talk about and settle the goals of your presentation.

Then, you need to write your speech, but how exactly would you do this? For a short speech, it would be smart and simple to split it into three parts. It is natural for people – speaker and viewers alike – to remember things in threes.

However, a keynote speech is different. There is a big gap between a five-minute speech and a one-hour speech. It is easier to lose your way in the text if the speech is longer. You might still get lost even if you have a good outline.

It may take half a day or a few hours to finish a short speech. For keynote speakers, it might take you a week or even longer to draft, edit, and finalize a keynote speech. Outlining and organization could save you a lot of hours for revisions.


Begin at the End

Consider what you want your audience to do and what would make them be inspired to act after listening to your speech.

All the things in your keynote address must build up to call-to-action. Your speech would be boring if you telegraph it or bring your audience in a straight line.

Split the Speech into Three Sections – and Break Them Up into Three

It is difficult to deal with a 30-minute speech by breaking it up into three parts of 10 minute each. Take those three parts and split them into three. You will now have a total of nine parts of around three minutes each, and you could work on them individually until they are polished.

Many keynote speakers take this as a technique because this ensures a balanced speech on each part. If you just write out the whole text, the structure may go wrong.


If you do not have anything else on your speech but statistics, your audience would probably look for blunt instruments and sharp objects.

Any kind of repetition should have a goal. Strong keynote speakers have a variety of things in their speech: samples from history, interesting numbers, metaphors, new ideas, and stories of real people.

A good speech does not just connect those things together. It should be able to weave everything like a tapestry and let the audience experience a roller coaster ride.

Take a look at every part of the speech and determine what emotion the audience would feel. Then, find out about how they would feel about before and after the section. It must not be repetitive or random. Even if you are discussing about a challenging issue, such as bad economy or hunger, there is a reason you are delivering the keynote – and that reason is the prospect of change. One hour of “this is an awful problem” or “thank you for giving me the chance to speak” will not work.

Keynote speakers must give the audience a spark of hope that they could make a difference. Discuss stories about ‘normal’ people – not geniuses or billionaires – who made a difference. If you can, local people would be great. Perhaps, there is someone in the audience who is moved by this issue or has been an advocate. The story of that person is precious. Do not begin with it, but rather end with it.

Author Bio:
Any kind of repetition should have a goal. Strong keynote speakers have a variety of things in their speech. Click web site motivational-speaker-success here you get alot about keynote speakers.

Things To Consider When Buying Lanyards

The number of choices for lanyards that you can buy in the market is numerous. It is an undeniable fact that some are preferred over other types. The choices can be based on the quality of the lanyard, the price or the design.

From a point of view of a buyer, what do you really have to consider when buying a lanyard?
How do you identify a good lanyard?

ID lanyardsWhether you are buying as an individual for your personal use or if you are planning for an entire company, there are things that you must look into before you purchase a lanyard. We have outlined few of the things that you must deliberate on when you are thinking of buying a lanyard.

One of the first things that you must do is to check the quality of the lanyard. There are different materials that we use in making a best quality lanyard.

Some of the most commonly used materials are polyester, nylon, cotton and even plastic. Our most commonly used materials are polyester and nylon because these are more durable compared to others.

Our company use different materials in producing lanyards because we know that different customers have different needs. Your preference will really depend on the length of time that you will be using it.

When looking for a lanyard, you must also consider the design. Lanyards come in different designs. Some are pain, printed woven, dyed and the list could go on.

When you shop for a lanyard, you must already have an idea on how your lanyard would look like. Choose a color that represents your company.

If you are buying your company lanyard, you must come up with a proposal on how you will position your company name or logo on it. If you do not have a concrete design on what to use for your lanyard, we have a group a graphic artists that will be more than happy to help you.

You must have a specific budget when you are shopping for a lanyard. If you are not sure how much to allot for your lanyards, you can request for a quotation from various suppliers.

Get at least three different quotations from three different suppliers. This does not mean though that you must choose the one that gave you with the lowest price because there are still things there other things that you have to consider.

You must always assess if you will be getting your money’s worth. It could be that the supplier who have given you the lowest price might not be able to meet the standard quality that you are looking for.

Maybe the other supplier who have given you a slightly higher price might be the one to provide you with the kind of lanyard that you are looking for.

In our case, when a client asks for a quotation, what we give them is just an estimate. We might still be able to work on the final price depending on the volume of the order.

Custom lanyardsAnother thing that you must consider is the capability of the supplier to meet your deadline. There are a lot of suppliers who can probably give you the quality that you are looking for, the design that you want and even the price that you can afford but are they able to deliver it to you in a timely manner?

You must look for a reliable supplier who will be able to deliver the items that you need on the day that you need it. Reliability is one of the core values of our team. We make sure that we are able to deliver our products on time.

One of things that can destroy any company is the lack of integrity. Once the trust of a client has been broken, it is hard to regain it. A simple task of not being able to deliver lanyards on time can be a big deal.

Dosages and HCG

hcgLosing weight rapidly is an unhealthy scenario for any dieter. In this diet plan, the presence of HCG removes any negative effects of weight loss. The studies have shown that the fat burnt by the HCG is not connected either to the muscle or structure of the body. The dieters who underwent the HCG program never give any feedback of internal depletion in the body. There is no health risks associated with the dieters adopting the HCG protocol into their daily lives.

In his book, Dr. Simeons suggested that a dosage of 125 IU is ideal for a normal person to lose weight without losing the natural immunity of the body. He went on to set the upper limit at 200UI, warning people of the adverse effects of taking the HCG in higher dosages than the mentioned ones.

Most of the modern day clinics suggest a dosage ranging between 175 UI to 200 UI for its dieters. They cite the increase of toxin levels in the human body as the reason behind the logic of increasing the dosage value. There is wide spread belief that the dosage of HCG directly correlates to the level of hunger experienced by the dieters.
According to Dr. Simeons’s protocol, it is important to take a break from continuous dieting. He said that the break is important to replenish the lowered immunity levels in the body. Dieters with obesity are allowed to diet until they lose 40 pounds instead of the traditional 34.

The decision to stop the HCG injections during menstruation is a personal decision of the dieter, which can be taken in consultation with a physician.

Dr. Simeons states that the treatment does not get affected by the use of oral contraceptives taken during that period. It is widely known that HCG supplements can be injected into the human body in two forms. Taking drops in the mouth gives similar if not more efficient results of losing weight. These drops are directly absorbed by the blood cells under the tongue. The practice of partaking HCG via the mouth has been in use for more than a few centuries.

There is always a possibility of a dieter feeling hungry when he is subjected to a HCG diet. However, these hunger streaks will vanish when the dieter is into the second week of the diet. The hypothalamus gland takes time to adjust to the change in the body diet, resulting in the hunger streaks in the first year.